Kristallnacht, the Untold Story

Warsaw - 1938

The last post of 2014 brings another excerpt from Stacy Danielle Stephens’ amazing historical novel, we get yet another glimpse into WWII.  This time, we stare the horror of the Holocaust in the face by going into the details that not everyone is aware of regarding its early days.  Can you tell we love these little slices of history? (you can read some of the earlier ones here, here, here and here – highly recommended!).

On March 31st, 1938, the Polish Senate passed The Expatriates Act, a law which had already passed the Sejm, the lower house of Poland’s parliament. The intent of this law was to prevent those European Jews who were nominally Polish citizens from entering Poland.

* * *

On October 15th, 1938, the Polish Government announced that effective October 31st, 1938, all persons holding Polish passports and wishing to return to Poland must first obtain a special stamp at the Polish Consulate in their country of residence. It went without saying that Jews would not be given the stamp.

* * *

Jews Boarding Trains for Deportation

At eight o’clock on the evening of October 27th, 1938, Herschel Grynszpan’s parents, brother, and sister were taken into police custody in Hanover. They were among approximately 17,000 Polish Jews residing in Germany who would be taken in cattle cars to the Polish border, then driven like cattle across the border, arriving in Sbenszyn on October 29th, 1938. Because they had valid Polish passports, the Polish government could not refuse them entry; however, they were housed in the stables of a military installation.

On the morning of Sunday, October 30th, the Red Cross brought food to the camp in Sbenszyn. The detainees there hadn’t eaten since their arrest on Thursday.

On Thursday, November 3rd, Hirschel, now living in Paris, received a letter from his father, telling him what had happened to his family, and urging him to go to America, if he could, and to attempt to help them from there.

Herschel had hoped to study in Paris, once his immigration status had been rectified. Although he could not legally remain in Paris, French authorities were unable to deport him. His German visa had expired, and because he was Jewish, neither Germany nor Poland would issue him a new visa. There was no possibility of his emigrating to America.

On Monday, November 7th, he purchased a revolver and a box of ammunition, then went to the German Embassy.

“I am a German citizen,” he told the receptionist, “and wish to speak with the ambassador.”

“On what business?” she asked. He did not answer. “Do you have your passport with you?” Again, he did not answer. She pressed an electric signal to summon assistance from the Embassy staff. Legation Secretary Ernst vom Rath responded. When he entered the reception area, Herschel rapidly fired six shots. Three slugs went wide, embedding themselves in the wall. One struck Rath’s foot and another his shoulder, and one struck his spleen[1].

* * *

On November 8th, 1938, the Völkischer Beobachter’s front page banner headline screamed HEINOUS JEWISH ATTEMPTED MURDER while a smaller front page headline spoke of a CRIME AGAINST THE PEACE OF EUROPE. Neither of these articles concerned the ruthless deportations which had recently occurred, but were about the Embassy shooting in Paris, as were six more articles on the inner pages. Other newspapers in Germany were clamoring for justice, punishment, and consequences. To heighten the drama, Hitler sent his personal physician, Karl Brandt, to Paris to monitor vom Rath’s condition, and quietly promoted the Legation Secretary to Counselor. Newspapers were instructed to use the new rank when referencing vom Rath, and to say nothing about the promotion. In Munich, party Gauleiters were gathered to commemorate the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch, and not wanting to be outdone, each of them phoned his local with instructions that plans be made at once for spontaneous demonstrations against the Jews.

Funeral of Ernst vom Rath

On November 9th, Counselor Ernst vom Rath died[2].

By the morning of November 10th, with few exceptions, every synagogue and Jewish-owned business in Germany had been vandalized or burned. By that evening, 30,000 Jewish men had been arrested[3].

[1] Although the crime took place in the German Embassy, Grynszpan was arrested by Paris police and remained in French custody until July 18th, 1940, when he was extradited to Germany under the terms of the armistice. He never went to trial, and the last person known to have seen him alive, in 1943, was Adolf Eichmann.

[2] He would be given a state funeral on November 17th, with Hitler present.

[3] They would spend two to three months in concentration camps, then be released, only to be arrested again within three years.

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