Month: August 2015

The Etruscans – and Their Chariots

Etruscan Chariot Race

The most ironic thing about the Etruscans of central and northern Italy is the fact that their very success doomed them to present-day obscurity and mystery. The reason for this is that the twelve great Etruscan city-states were probably the greatest single influence on Rome before its expansion. In fact, many in the ancient world considered Rome, despite its Latin language and origins, to be an Etruscan city. Etruscan territory was also among the first to be annexed into the growing Roman domain, and the descendants of the Rasna (or Rasenna), as they called themselves, were made into Roman citizens along with the rest of the Italians, at a very early date.

The upshot is that it becomes very difficult in the present day to separate pre-Roman pure Etruscan civilization from what occurred in the region after the Romans swept everything away. The fact that their language has never been adequately deciphered (it is one of those stand-alone oddities like Basque) has not helped much either.

Consequently, much of the history of the Etruscans has been pieced together through the years, using burial sites and art. From carvings found in burial sites and elsewhere we know that the Etruscans did indeed have chariot races: two and three horse teams pulling one-person baskets. By the prominence of chariot racing in Etruscan visual art, it is clear that the sport held a significant spot in Rasna hearts during the first half of the 5th century BCE, with some differences from the way it was practiced in Greece, including the use of a helmet.

Other sports practiced by the Etruscans include discus and javelin throwing, wrestling and horse-racing, end there is even speculation that they introduced the Romans to gladiatorial games.

Experts believe that the most important sporting events in ancient Etruria took place during religious ceremonies such as burials, which makes the situation in the story extremely probable, apart from the fantasy element, especially considering the proliferation of deities within the Etruscan pantheon.

Etruscan women were considered equal to the men, much to the consternation of Greek visitors to the region often exercised. This has led to a series of defamatory articles written by certain Greek historians which are suspected to be at least partly apocryphal.

Erotic Etruscan Threesome Tomb Art

While tomb artwork does indicate that Etruscan society was sexually liberal, there is little to indicate that no one was quite certain as to who their father was, something that Greek travelers hinted at! Etruscan women were certainly interested in their bodies, and often exercised, but were not allowed to participate in the sporting events themselves.

Advertisements

An Interesting Duality

After a bit of an early-summer break, Classically Educated returns with an eye-opening look at two incidents that should you think… and not like many of the conclusions, particularly if you’re the kind of person who likes to analyze the karmic link between events…

Most of you will quickly realize that the post below is by our historical expert Stacy Danielle Stephens.  But for those new to the site, please look out for her other, longer pieces!

The weekend of Palm Sunday, 1935

Black Sunday 1935 Storm

On Saturday, April 13th, 1935, nine officers of the LAPD Red Squad[1] attempted to restore order at a student anti-war protest by liberally applying their blackjacks and brass knuckles to seventeen-year-old Flora Turchincsky[2] and nineteen-year-old Esther Kleinman. In response, some of the protesters charged the police, who withdrew in fear while clearing a path to safety with their blackjacks, while other protesters carried the two unconscious girls away. The nine officers sustained widespread abrasions during their escape, inflicting minor injuries on another dozen of the protesters.

That same day, the Chicago Police Red Squad managed to disperse protesters at the University of Chicago with only a single broken nose among the students, and no injuries to themselves. Both protests were part of the second annual National Student Strike Against War[3]. In most cities, protesters were opposed only by other civilians armed with rotten eggs, who considered themselves patriots.

* * *

On the morning of Palm Sunday, April 14th, 1935, a cold front originating in the Dakotas began moving just a few points east of south. It was a storm system desperately seeking humidity, but finding only sustained and unremitting drought conditions. As the dry heat simply pushed it along, it gathered up more dust than it left behind, becoming an increasingly massive and impenetrable column, gradually encompassing the horizon and climbing as high as the atmosphere could carry it. It travelled at sixty-eight miles per hour, reaching Amarillo, Texas by seven O’Clock in the evening. Crossing Kansas, the thing had begun to look like Hell itself moving south; swirling black topsoil with red dakota dust flickering at the upper edges, horrendously backlighted by the declining sun, which could not penetrate the bulk of it. By nightfall, more than three hundred million tons of dust had moved, some of it going as far as a thousand miles before it settled.

The next morning, The Carbondale Free Press[4] reported that “wind drifted the dust like snow,” covering all of Kansas, almost all of Missouri, and most of Nebraska, Oklahoma and Texas.

[1] As early as 1920, and in many cases, well into the 1970s, the police departments of several US cities had special units within them to deal with “the communist threat”. Although the press and public were generally quite aware of their existence, they were seldom officially acknowledged.

[2] The daughter of Russian immigrants, Flora was born in Minnesota, and graduated from the University of California at Berkley, with honors, in 1938. She would later work in legal research, child welfare, and accounting, and would twice be elected to the Nevada State Legislature. On the Judiciary committee, she fought for prison reform in Nevada. She died in Los Angeles, of cancer, on October 25, 1973.

[3] Organized by communists in 1934, this event, which took place on the anniversary of US entry into The Great War of 1914-1918, later gained widespread support among several liberal and pacifist groups. In 1936, one half-million students would participate nation-wide. Over the following five years, support for the annual even would decline, and 1941 would be its final year.

[4] Many accounts mistakenly attribute this to The New York Times.