Of course, Bram Stoker is often cited (by everyone who isn’t a serious student of the genre) as the father of Vampire fiction. With Stephanie Meyer’s popularity, I suspect that the group of people who aren’t experts but are giving their opinion anyway is pretty big. Hell, for all I know, Meyer’s fans might think the genre started with Anne Rice… or with Meyer herself, and that this Dracula guy is a character from one of her unpublished novels.
At the risk of adding another non-expert voice to the discussion, I will not attempt to trace the genesis of the vampire myth in eastern European folklore (there are people who have dedicated their lives to that. Go read their work) but will simply limit myself to expressing my thoughts about an early exponent that I happened to stumble across in my readings.
I was never specifically planning to read Sheridan Le Fanu’s In a Glass Darkly, but it happened to be included in Easton Press’ Horror Library, which I had signed up for (as mentioned here before, I’m a sucker for pretty editions). It’s from 1872, which means that it predates Dracula by over 20 years, and it contains at least one story, “Carmilla” which foreshadows the sexual overtones of Stoker’s book but focused on a lesbian as opposed to heterosexual relationship.
Of course, in 1872, you couldn’t really make things too explicit, but savvy readers will have known what LeFanu was talking about. In fact, the story (more of a novella than a short story) has been adapted several times for film, always with a view for its shock value. There’s an excellent article dealing with the film versions here (slightly, not excessively, NSFW).
Despite its notoriety, Carmilla wasn’t, in my opinion, the most memorable story in the book. That honor has to go to “The Room in the Dragon Volant“, another novella length tale where sexual innuendo and dark motivations combine in what is essentially a modern horror/thriller framed in a Victorian writing style. It develops slowly, but is extremely satisfying once it does. No vampires in it, though.
The rest of the book is composed of shorter tales, of which “Mr. Justice Harbottle”, a tale of divine retribution, is also better than “Carmilla” IMO. Satisfying and brutal– everything one needs in a horror story!
So, without opining on things I have no first-hand knowledge of, I can safely state that, while Stoker might have popularized the form, the vampire story in English literature preceded him. And LeFanu was much braver in the use of cutting-edge, controversial elements than Stoker would ever be.
All in all, a good book, especially for those who enjoy a good haunt.